Albendazole – Drug Information

Generic Name : Albendazole

Therapeutic Classification : Antihelmintics

Overview :

Albendazole is a broad-spectrum anthelmintic or anti-worm medication. This medication prescribed for tapeworm infections, hydatid cyst disease, cysticercosis or neurocysticercosis, capillariasis, cutaneous larva migrans, giardiasis, microsporidiosis including Septata intestinalis infection, intestinal parasites in immigrants, strongyloidiasis, trichinosis, trichostrongyliasis. It works by killing sensitive parasites.

Mechanism Action of Albendazole :

Albendazole causes degenerative alterations in the tegument and intestinal cells of the worm by binding to the colchicine-sensitive site of tubulin, thus inhibiting its polymerization or assembly into microtubules. The loss of the cytoplasmic microtubules leads to impaired uptake of glucose by the larval and adult stages of the susceptible parasites, and depletes their glycogen stores. Degenerative changes in the endoplasmic reticulum, the mitochondria of the germinal layer, and the subsequent release of lysosomes result in decreased production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is the energy required for the survival of the helminth. Due to diminished energy production, the parasite is immobilized and eventually dies.

Pharmacokinetics :

Absorption: <5%; may increase up to 4-5 times with a fatty meal

Peak Plasma Time: 2-5 hour

Half-life: 8-12 hour

Distribution: Well inside hydatid cysts & CSF

Metabolism: Hepatic; extensive first-pass effect; pathways include rapid sulfoxidation (major), hydrolysis, & oxidation

Excretion: urine <1% as active metabolite); feces

Contraindications for Albendazole :

Contraindicated in pregnant and breastfeeding women, hypersensitivity, neonates, and liver impairment.

Pregnancy Category :

Category D :

There is an evidence of fetal risk based on adverse reaction data, but potential benefits may allow the drug to be used in pregnant women despite risks.

Dosage of Albendazole :

  • Adults < 60 kg: 15 mg/kg/day (not to exceed 800 mg/day) given in two divided doses for 28 days followed by a 14-day drug-free period. Repeat as above.
  • Children >= 6 years: 15 mg/kg/day given in two divided doses for 28 days, followed by a 14-day drug-free period. Repeat as above.
  • Cysticercosis or neurocysticercosis (larval form of T. solium): PO- Adults >= 60 kg: 400 mg twice daily for 8 – 30 days. Treatment may be repeated as necessary. Adults < 60 kg: 15 mg/kg/day given in two divided doses for 8 – 30 days. Maximum dosage 800 mg/day. Treatment may be repeated as necessary. Children >= 6 years: 15 mg/kg/day given in two divided doses for for 8 – 30 days. Maximum dosage 800 mg/day. Treatment may be repeated as necessary.
  • Cutaneous larva migrans: PO- Adults: 400mg once daily for 3 days. Children: 5 mg/kg/day for 3 days.
  • Giardiasis: PO- Adults: 400 mg once daily for 3 days.
  • Intestinal parasites in immigrants: PO- Adults: 400 mg once daily for 5 days.
  • Microsporidiosis including Septata intestinalis infection: PO- Adults: 400 mg twice daily to 1600 mg twice daily has been used. Average dosage 800 mg twice daily. May take up to 2 months to see effect.
  • Trichostrongyliasis: PO- Adults: 400 mg as a single dose.
  • Trichinosis: PO- Adults: 400 mg twice daily for 15 days.
  • Hydatid cyst disease: PO- Adults >= 60 kg: 400 mg twice daily with meals for 28 days followed by a 14-day drug-free period. Repeat for 2 more cycles. For inoperable hydatid cysts, up to 5 cycles may be given.

Adverse Effects / Side Effects of Albendazole :

  • Central Nervous System: Headache, seizures, confusion, raised intracranial pressure, dizziness/vertigo.
  • Gastrointestinal: Nausea/vomiting, abdominal pain.
  • Liver: Inflammation of liver
  • Blood: Decrease in the number of white blood cells, thrombocytes, hemoglobin.
  • Skin: Reversible hair loss, infection, hypersensitivity including rash and hives.
  • Miscellaneous: Fever, acute kidney failure and dark urine.

Warnings and Precautions for Albendazole :

  • The tablets should be crushed or chewed and swallowed with glass of water.
  • This medication may cause dizziness. Do not drive or perform other possibly unsafe tasks until you know how you react to it.
  • This medication may cause bone marrow depression.
  • It is important to take iron every day while you are being treated for hookworm infection because it causes anemia.
  • Monitor blood cell counts and liver function (transaminases) at the beginning of each 28-day cycle of therapy and every 2 week while taking this medication.
  • Administer within 7 days of start of normal menstruation in women of childbearing age.
  • dequate nonhormonal contraceptive measures must be taken during and for 1 mth after therapy.
  • Do not change the dose, without your Doctor’s advice.

Other Interactions :

Food Interactions Grapefruit juice: Plasma concentrations may be elevated and the T may be shortened.

Storage Condition for Albendazole :

Store in room temperature in an airtight container and keep away from excess heat, moisture and children.

Trade Names/Brand Names of Albendazole :

India :

Albestar (400mg) | YBZ (400mg) | Salben (400mg) | Gekare (200mg/5mL) | Warmy A (400mg) | Nemozole (10ml) | Olpar (400mg) | Abide (10ml) | Nemozole (400mg) | D Worm (10ml) | Notel (10ml) | Zeroworm (400mg) | Zelbend (400mg) | Antiworm (10ml) | Alson (400mg) | Elbend (400mg) | Benil (1500mg) | Abtab (400mg) | Wormis -L | AX Worm (400mg) | Low (200mg) | Tuff (5ml) | Wornil (10ml) | Odal (400mg) | Benrik (400mg) | Omnitel (10ml) | Alworm (400mg)

International :

Alworm, Albenza, Andazol, Eskazole and Zentel

 

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